Madeline Hunter’s Lesson Plan[1]

 

Objectives

Before the lesson is prepared, the teacher should have a clear idea of what the teaching objectives are. What, specifically, should the student be able to do, understand, and care about as a result of the teaching? Informal. Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, which is shown below, gives an idea of the terms used in an instructional objective. See Robert Mager [library catalog] on behavioral objectives if writing specificity is required.

 

Standards

The teacher needs to know what standards of performance are to be expected and when pupils will be held accountable for what is expected. The pupils should be informed about the standards of performance. Standards: an explanation of the type of lesson to be presented, procedures to be followed, and behavioral expectations related to it, what the students are expected to do, what knowledge or skills are to be demonstrated and in what manner.

 

Anticipatory Set

Anticipatory set or Set Induction: sometimes called a "hook" to grab the student's attention: actions and statements by the teacher to relate the experiences of the students to the objectives of the lesson. To put students into a receptive frame of mind.

•     to focus student attention on the lesson

•     to create an organizing framework for the ideas, principles, or information that is to follow (c.f., the teaching strategy called "advance organizers")

•     to extend the understanding and the application of abstract ideas through the use of example or analogy...used any time a different activity or new concept is to be introduced

Teaching: Input

The teacher provides the information needed for students to gain the knowledge or skill through lecture, film, tape, video, pictures, etc.

 

Teaching: Modeling

Once the material has been presented, the teacher uses it to show students examples of what is expected as an end product of their work. The critical aspects are explained through labeling, categorizing, comparing, etc. Students are taken to the application level (problem-solving, comparison, summarizing, etc.).

 

Teaching: Checking for Understanding

Determination of whether students have "got it" before proceeding. It is essential that students practice doing it right so the teacher must know that students understand before proceeding to practice. If there is any doubt that the class has not understood, the concept/skill should be retaught before practice begins.

 

 

Questioning strategies: asking questions that go beyond mere recall to probe for the higher levels of understanding...to ensure memory network binding and transfer. Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives provides a structure for questioning that is hierarchical and cumulative. It provides guidance to the teacher in structuring questions at the level of proximal development, i.e., a level at which the pupil is prepared to cope. Questions progress from the lowest to the highest of the six levels of the cognitive domain of the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.

 

Guided Practice

An opportunity for each student to demonstrate grasp of new learning by working through an activity or exercise under the teacher's direct supervision. The teacher moves around the room to determine the level of mastery and to provide individual remediation as needed.

 

Closure

Those actions or statements by a teacher that are designed to bring a lesson presentation to an appropriate conclusion. Used to help students bring things together in their own minds, to make sense out of what has just been taught. "Any questions? No. OK, let's move on" is not closure. Closure is used:

•     to cue students to the fact that they have arrived at an important point in the lesson or the end of a lesson

•     to help organize student learning

•     to help form a coherent picture, to consolidate, eliminate confusion and frustration, etc.

•     to reinforce the major points to be learned...to help establish the network of thought relationships that provide a number of possibilities for cues for retrieval. Closure is the act of reviewing and clarifying the key points of a lesson, tying them together into a coherent whole, and ensuring their utility in application by securing them in the student's conceptual network

 

Independent Practice

Once pupils have mastered the content or skill, it is time to provide for reinforcement practice. It is provided on a repeating schedule so that the learning is not forgotten. It may be homework or group or individual work in class. It can be utilized as an element in a subsequent project. It should provide for decontextualization: enough different contexts so that the skill/concept may be applied to any relevant situation...not only the context in which it was originally learned. The failure to do this is responsible for most student failure to be able to apply something learned.

 

Materials

List materials needed.

 

Duration

Type the amount of time needed to complete this lesson.



[1] http://template.aea267.iowapages.org/lessonplan/